Photoshop Tutorial:File Formats

Photoshop is capable of adjusting to numerous ‘types’ of formats and its tools if used to their full capacity can create some amazing results including even the smallest detailing, It also uses many different formats and there are advantages and disadvantages to which format you choose to save your work in. Photoshop can also open and save several kinds of files and the more you further your knowledge as to why these files exist you can apply the correct files to the correct image type and in web design. When choosing your file format there are three main things you should consider which will help you to determine how to save your file – web use, layering and image quality.

Image quality begins when you first take a photograph with your camera, you should use the highest pixel setting that your camera contains because the higher the level of pixilation the better the quality of the final image, but this also means that the higher the quality of the image the bigger the overall file size will be. Your camera will give you the option of how high or low you want the pixilation to be, so change this in accordance to what the final image is going to be used for. Photographs are best taken as a raw image to begin with as you will have the option to convert them into a smaller file once you have imported them onto your computer, and the larger the image is to begin with I have found, the easier it will be to manipulate using Photoshop’s tools. Photographs can be imported as JPEG’s or as a raw image but if you save as a JPEG you will lose some of the quality of the image from the start.

Layering begins once the image is stored on your computer, the image will usually open itself in the default programme so you will have to open Photoshop and then find the image you want to open using file – open – and then where the image is stored. This is when you will do all your manipulation, layering and resizing using Photoshop itself. Once you have completed this you will then save your changes, if you save the images straight into Photoshop it will save them as a PSD, PDD or EPS file.

If your image is saved in these particular formats your file will stay large and hold the quality whilst preserving all layers, this is the best file format to use if you are going to be reworking the image. Other choices of formats for your file are TIFF – which will keep the quality but are large files and best used in design for print, BMP or bitmap is a windows file that creates good photos but creates large files and a PDF is a adobe acrobat file which locks texts and images so they cannot be further manipulated, usually used as a file for sending information or important documents.

File formats that are going to be used for web design UK use need to be small size files, which means using a format that highly compresses the file. But compressing a file highly using takes out some of the range of colours, the vibrancy and the sharpness of the photograph. JPEG – Joint Photographic Experts Group, is the most used web design England form file, this is because the JPEG compresses the file to a small size but it still holds the quality and displays millions of colours unlike most compressing files.

When iPod Attacks

Japan?s Ministry of Economy has issued a warning to users of the portable music player, the iPod Nano, after at least two recent incidents of the popular device overheating and causing minor fires.

So far there have been 14 such incidents in the country, according to reports, including one that occurred in March. The latest incident prompted the Ministry to order Apple to investigate the device?s safety and report its findings within a week.

Well the verdict is in, and Apple has blamed the malfunctions on the batteries that were in Nano?s sold between September 2005 and December 2006, are to blame.

The company received very few reports of such incidents ? less than 0.001 percent of first-generation iPod Nano units, they claim, and all incidents have been traced back to a single battery supplier.

Too this point the defect has not caused any injures of property damage, the company maintained, and no similar problems have been reported in connection with any other iPod Nano model. Apple has advised owners of first-generation Nano?s to contact AppleCare for a replacement if the battery should overheat.

There has been case?s in which Apple laptops have caught on fire, and usually the source of the problem was the lithium battery powering the machine. The batteries were short-circuiting and bursting in to flames when microscopic metal particles came into contact with other parts.

Toshiba Strike Back with Near-High Definition Quality DVD Player

After a right pounding from Sony?s Blu-ray DVD format in the high-definition war that ended in early 2008, Toshiba has set up shop in the standard definition DVD market. The company has launched a new up-scaling DVD player, the XD-E500, which promises to deliver as near to HD-DVD as you can get, without it actually being HD.

Toshiba?s new US$150 XD-E500 features Toshiba?s new eXtended Detail Enhancement (XDE) technology, which increases up-conversion from 480i/p to 1080p, and also offers three user-selectable picture enhancement modes ? Sharp, Colour, and contrast – to help refine the video quality, according to Toshiba.

Sharp Mode offers improved detail enhancement, taking it one step closer to HD, Toshiba boasts. Edges are sharper and details in movies are more visible. As opposed to traditional sharpness control, XDE technology analyses the whole picture and adds edge enhancement exactly where it?s needed.

Colour Mode ensures the colours stand out with improved richness, with blues and greens appearing more lifelike, according to Toshiba. Colour Mode combines the improvement in colour with the detail enhancement of Sharp Mode and is perfect for outdoor scenes.

Contrast Mode is designed to make darker scenes or foregrounds more clearly, without the typical ?washing out2 that can occur with traditional contrast adjustment.

In addition to XDE, the XD-E500 incorporates key features found on most up-converting standard DVD players, such as HDMI-CEC, DivX certification, JPEG capability, and MP3 and WMA playback.

“XDE offers consumers a simple solution to add on to their HDTV purchase. XDE works with existing DVDs to deliver a near HD experience with enhanced detail and richer colours. Toshiba is delivering to consumers what they want — a high quality experience at an affordable price,” noted Louis Masses, Toshiba director of product planning.

Toshiba will be hoping to capitalise on the customers who are still reeling from HD disc battle with Blu-ray, as most consumers haven’t jumped up to more expensive format yet.

“It’s an interesting time for the market,” Ben Bajarin, director of the consumer technology practice for Creative Strategies, said.

“After [Toshiba's] HD DVD finally phased itself out and we noted that Blu-ray was the clear winner, we saw a lot of consumers who were saying, ‘When’s the right time for me to buy … and if so, what’s the right price?’” he added.

Bajarin doesn’t believe an HD up-converting device is going to be a long-term solution.

“We’re at 1080p now, and that’s going to continue to go up. With educated consumers, one of the main reasons the Sony PS3 Blu-ray player is so interesting is that it can be updated with software – so as new standards come out, they’ll be able to update their PS3 Blu-ray player with software so that it’s consistent with what’s available on the market at the highest levels,” he explained.

“Consumers already know Blu-ray is the winner, so I find it hard to believe that consumers will go out in larger numbers and buy a device that’s not Blu-ray,” Bajarin said.

Photo Editing and Restoration in Photoshop

This tutorial will teach you how to add colour onto an old photograph that may of lost colour through fading or an image that is originally black and white or greyscale, sometimes this can take a lot of time but the more time spent the better the final result will be, and looks great if used for Web Design.

  • Open up the image that you want to use and ensure that the image mode is set to RGB, you can do this by going into Image > Mode and then check its set to RGB.
  • Press Q to go into quick mask mode and make sure that the quick mask option that is on the main toolbar are set to selected areas. Using the Paintbrush fill in the area that you would like to colourize, this area will then appear in red.
  • Press Q again and this will send you back into standard mode and a selection will appear around the area you filled with the Paintbrush, when completing the next step your selections will be saved as Layer Masks which you will be able to restore later but you could also save your selections by going to Select > Save Selection and then name the selection after the area which you have just outlined in the image you are using.
  • Click on Create New Adjustment Layer icon which is at the bottom of the layers palette and choose the option of colour balance from the menu, you will be given a option of highlights, mid-tones and shadows and adjust the sliders for these until you find the colour that you think looks the best, this choice isn?t final you will have the option of going back and editing using your layers palette by double clicking on the adjustment layer icon for the layer that you want to edit. Web Design England.
  • Repeat this process over again for the other parts of the photo that you need to colourize, when this is al done and you have got colour using your colour balance adjustment layer you can also make further additional adjustment layers to adjust each colour layer more, you will be given a selection of options including Contrast, Shadows, Brightness, Saturation, Hue? Just load the particular selection by clicking CTRL and then clicking onto the adjustment layer, and repeat the process of adding a new adjustment layer.
  • Web Design UK, Once you have completed a few images you can begin to explore the other effects you can get from where you allow the sliders to sit and which effects work best which certain original images.

Windows 7 tech-details to be released soon

For Microsoft, Vista is barely out of the box, and XP is still the operating system of choice for many, but a blog run by two of the computer giant?s senior engineering managers is already talking about Windows 7, even though is not scheduled for release until 2010.

Jon DeVaan and Steven Sinofsky, plan to release in-depth technical specifications in October, first at the Professional Developers Conference and then at Windows Hardware Engineering Conference.

DeVaan and Sinofsky demonstrate that Microsoft has learned from the Vista experience.

“We, as a team, definitely learned some lessons about ‘disclosure’ and how we can all too easily get ahead of ourselves in talking about features before our understanding of them is solid. Related to disclosure is the idea of how we make sure not to set expectations around the release that end up disappointing you – features that don’t make it, claims that don’t stick, or support we don’t provide,” they wrote.

As anyone who was excited about Vista when the first details were emerging will understand, over-promising on features which are abandoned or discarded can?t happen with Windows 7.

Vista needed several significant investments in additional hardware to ensure its smooth running, and took up more system resources than many corporate IT shops had anticipated.

Windows 7 should address the remaining tech issues with Vista, Rob Helm, director of research at Directions on Microsoft, an independent consulting firm, said.

“The worst problems with Vista had to do with hardware performance and capability,” he said. Those are being resolved or will be resolved over the next two to three years, he added.

“By the time Windows gets out of the door, the hardware universe will have caught up with the demands that Vista places on it,” he said.

Windows 7 is not the ambitious undertaking that Vista was, so it should be a smooth roll out for the product. “It is pretty clear it is supposed to be an incremental improvement to Windows Vista,” Helm said.

Areas that Microsoft has said it will improve in Windows 7 include graphics performance, power management and APIs (application programming interfaces) for developers.

The biggest change so far will be the introduction of touch-screen computing ? a feature that will again alienate anyone with a low spec PC.

Nonetheless, Helm said, Microsoft clearly hopes Windows 7 will be able to deliver what people had originally expected from Vista.

Twitter Halts UK SMS Service

The popular micro-blogging system Twitter has stopped its text message support in the UK due to excessive costs, leaving British users without a full service.

The Site, which allows users to send messages to individuals or friends over the web, text or instant messaging, will still continue to allow people to send messages to Twitter y mobile, but will no longer deliver updates and messages to people via SMS. The move does not affect the US, Canada or India.

In an email to users last night, Co-founder Biz Stone explained that the company could not afford to support outbound SMS until it had made better billing arrangements with Britain?s mobile phone operators.

“It pains us to take this measure. However, we need to avoid placing undue burden on our company and our service,” he said.

“Even with a limit of 250 messages received per week, it could cost Twitter about $1,000 per user, per year to send SMS outside of Canada, India, or the US. It makes more sense for us to establish fair billing arrangements with mobile operators than it does to pass these high fees on to our users.”

The announcement rubbed a large amount of UK users the wrong way, with one user saying that it was ?too much of a downgrade,? but in the same breadth saying ?at least I have an iPhone now?.

Another user said that the recent improvements to the website have softened the impact somewhat: “The end of SMS is a blow but won’t be fatal now the patchy service has improved.”

For Twitter, it?s a set back for the hotly-tipped start-up, which has grown to an estimated 2.2 million users since its launch in 2006. Last year the company raised $15 million in funding from investors including Union Square Ventures and Amazon founder Jeff Bezos.

However, working how to make the service pay has always been an issue for the company?s creators. Co-Founder Ev Williams said that making the system profitable was a high priority.

“We don’t have any specific plans for a payment system, though that’s interesting,” he said. “But we definitely are striving for a built-in revenue model that is compatible with the open nature of Twitter and its ecosystem, rather than something tacked-on.”

Digital Images

There are four most common image files which are used in Web Design today, these being ? JPEG, GIF, TIFF and PNG. These image files have their own individual ways of storing colour modes. A JPEG image using RGB mode will store 24 bits per pixel or 8 bits per pixel in Grayscale mode. A GIF image file provides indexed colour at 1 or 8 bits per pixel. A TIFF image using RGB mode will store 24 or 48 bits per pixel or 8 or 16 bits in grayscale mode and at indexed colour holds 1 or 8 bits per pixel. A PNG image file using RGB mode will store 24 or 48 bits, grayscale 8 or 16 bits and indexed colour 1 or 8 bits.

Photographic images usually have continuous tones within the image, this means that pixels that are positioned close together usually have similar colours, and for example, a photo of green grass will contain numerous shades of green. A JPEG photographic image is usually 24-bit RGB colour, or 8 bit grayscale, and a typical colour photograph may contain around 100,000 colours, out of the possible set of 16 million colours in 24-bit RGB colour.

Website Design UK pages require JPG, GIF or PNG image types, because that is all that online browsers can show. JPG is the best choice on the web for photo images as it is the smallest sized file and website pages tend to use the GIF format for any graphic images e.g. logos or line art.

Graphic images do not normally have a continuous tone unless a gradient has been used within the graphic. Graphics are drawings are not like photos plus they usually use few colours, less than 16 colours in the whole image. In a colour graphic cartoon, a particular area of colour will use one shade, where as in a photograph there may be numerous shades of one colour. A map is produced using graphics and only uses 4 – 5 map colours plus 1 – 2 colours of text and then blue water and white paper, so these types of graphics use less than 16 colours, Graphics like this are ideal for Indexed Colour.

The TIFF file format is the best image file to use when best quality is required, and this is why the TIFF is common in professional, commercial printing environments and for Web Design England. High Quality large JPG images are also good too, but they can be ruined if they are made too small.

The 2D digital image is split into two parts, images know as ?bitmapped? are usually used in image making programmes such as Photoshop or painting packages, bitmap images are usually made up of rectangle picture elements known as pixels and each pixel is a colour, if the image is enlarged you can see these pixels and the image appears jagged, this can be improved by increasing the number of pixels per inch, known as a higher resolution image.

The other part is known as a ?vector? image and these are used in drawing and illustration programmes like Adobe Illustrator, a vector image is made up using lines and shapes, if the vector image is enlarged the quality will not degrade and the smoothness of the final image is only determined by the output device used to print the image.

Are Russian Cyber Operatives to Blame for Georgian Network Issues?

With wave after wave of Russian troops, and bomber aircraft pouring over the border, Georgia have been under a hell of a lot of attacks in the last few days, but it?s not just the physical battering of the nation, Russian Cyber operatives have crippled the country?s communications network, halting the Georgian government?s flow of information.

In an effort to keep lines of communication open, Georgia?s president, Mikheil Saakashvili, has moved his website to a US hosting company ? in Georgia, Atlanta – and now the foreign ministry is using Blogger to release statements.

Russia has denied crippling the network, but the timing is suspicious so it?s easy to point the finger of blame. Estonia and Poland have both faced cyber attacks from Russians ? though never proved, and have rushed to the aid of stricken Georgians.

The cyber attacks have all the trademarks of Russian operatives who specialise in organised cyber crime. Frontpage defacements of websites, jamming of networks, ?they?ve done that before,? said James Lewis, of the Center for Strategic and International Studies.

“It’s a nice trade for everybody. The criminals get a little protection; the Russian government gets to have something happen without having their fingerprints on it. That’s the assumption.

?Like Estonia, we don’t have links to the Russian government, but it’s not a fluke where we magically have this happen when a shooting war starts,” he said

Criminal groups are likely involved in the cyber blitz, agreed Paul Ferguson, advanced threat researcher for Trend Micro “This looks to me like more than just some grassroots, hacktivist-inspired attacks,” he said

“But at the same time there’s no way to link it to a state-sponsored type of attack. It’s somewhere in the middle … it certainly has criminal elements.”

Sean Barnum, principal consultant for Cigital Security, said, that when you think of a nation engaging in cyber warfare, the image that may arise is one of coordinated chaos at a country?s command-and-control infrastructure. Georgia?s experiences are more like info-war.

“This was really targeted at preventing Georgia from presenting its message to the world through its communications platform and the Web,” Barnum said. “Obviously [the Georgians] can talk to reporters, but as more and more communications move to the Internet, with distributed blogs and all that, all the attacks that have happened were targeted at preventing Georgia from quickly and easily presenting the facts or their spin on what’s going on.”

“Anywhere you have organized crime, they leap in to take advantage of the news of the day,” David Perry, global education director for Trend Micro, said.

“If there’s an armed conflict between two nations and there are criminals in both nations, they would leap to take advantage of that, don’t you think?” he added

Georgia is especially susceptible because of its proximity to potential adversaries; its main Web communications lines go through Russia and Turkey. “This underscores the whole issue for evolving nations in the sense of how they’re projecting their presence on the Internet,” Ferguson said, “and who they have to rely on for connectivity. If your service is going next door to a country that might not be a friendly nation, they may want to rethink their plans on connectivity.”

Cutting Up Images In Photoshop For Web

Images which are used for Web Design layouts and templates, tables, JavaScript enabled menus and interfaces need to be cut up differently, to ensure they are proportioned correctly for what they are going to be used for, this tutorial will show you how to cut them up correctly and then input them into HTML tables ready for use on the internet and for Web Design UK.

  • Begin by opening up the image which you want to cut up and use the shortcut CTRL & R to turn the documents rulers on so you have a guideline, drag the edges of the image out so you also have a grey work area to ?play with?.
  • Click on the ruler at the top of your page, hold down click and drag down with the cursor, this will make a blue line appear and then drag this line to the point that your want to make a cut and then let go, the final point you stop at doesn?t need to definitely be where you want the cut to be, you can still change the position if the line using the Move Tool to drag the line around.
  • Use the same process only using the ruler on the left hand side of your image and your image should now be divided into four sections by the blue lines, you need to keep repeating this process until all the areas that you want to cut up are surrounded by blue boxes.
  • If you want to animate a section of your image like what Web Design England can do, you need to make sure that the area is marked to be cut out and this will reduce the file size for your image ensuring the whole image will not need to be loaded numerous times for the animated section, also choose the Snap To Guides option in the view menu.
  • Using the Marquee Selection Tool make a selection box around the area of the image that you want to cut out, when the area you want to cut out is selected press CTRL & C to copy the selection into memory and then create a new blank document using CTRL & N and the new dialogue box will show the dimensions of the piece you copied, press CTRL & V and this will paste the selection you have copied, save the new image and then go back to the original image.
  • Repeat this process for every section that you wish to cut up and now the image is separated into usable pieces they will need to be reassembled so they appear to be one whole image again, this will be done using HTML TABLES. You will need the cell spacing, cell padding and border attributes to be set to ?0? and the width to be the same as your image as a whole, then all the images should appear lined up like they were still one single image.

Hacker Finds Security Flaws in nokia S40 Series Handsets

A security researcher has discovered a couple of major flaws with Nokia?s mid-rage handsets, which allow him to remotely install malicious application with unprecedented capabilities. He?s keeping the details to himself though unless someone is willing to give him EUR20, 000.

The issues are apparently with Nokia?s series 40 platform, which is the proprietary OS and application stack used in the majority of Nokia?s mid-range handsets. The flaw allows an attacker to install Java applications on to the handset remotely before permitting those apps to access phone functions that should be secured by the Java sandbox.

The flaws have been discovered by Adam Gowdiak. His website doesn?t give away much, but it has been established that the initial installation is performed using a silent WAP-Push command, one that bypasses the usual user interaction, in a process that also executes the newly-downloaded application As well as this, Gowdiak has discovered a way to trick the Java Virtual Machine in to thinking his apps have authorisation to every API on the handset, including native Series 40 functions.

Gowdiak believes the hack may be applicable to other handsets using Sun’s Java reference implementation, though it’s hard to know how widespread the problem is. At worst the problem could affect hundreds of millions of devices, and given that a malicious app can be installed with just a phone number, the risk is huge. A good hacker could infect a few million phones within hours.

As of yet, Nokia have not batted an eyelid (publicly that is) but Gowdiak has spoke to both Nkia and Sun, but as of yet neither company is willing to part with EUR20, 000 for the details. The problem for Gowdiak is that Nokia or Sun won?t pay that kind of money without knowing what they are buying, which leaves Gowdiak with a choice: He needs to either sit on the information and forget about it, hoping that no-one else figures it out, or he could sell the knowledge to the dark side of the net?